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8 Фев 2017
Панама: Акции на предъявителя – изъятие из обращения

Выпуск акций на предъявителя стал возможен с момента принятия в 1927 году Панамского закона о корпорациях.В отличие от именных акций (которые выдаются на имя физического или юридического лица), в сертификатах акций на предъявителя не указывают данные физического или юридического лица, являющихся владельцами акций.

Владельцем выступает любое лицо, которому принадлежат акции после их выпуска. Акции на предъявителя можно свободно передавать от одного лица к другому. Их не нужно индоссировать, или выпускать сертификат акции на имя нового владельца, как в случае с именными акциями.

На протяжении всей истории существования компаний,  акции на предъявителя выпускали в целях государственной необходимости. Благодаря ним упрощалась передача акций и сохранялась анонимность их владельцев по уважительным причинам (например, для лиц, живущих в странах, где тяжело сохранить секретность данных). Однако, за последние пятнадцать лет, выдача таких акций стала вызывать негативную реакцию. В некоторых случаях выпуск акций на предъявителя расценивали как незаконное или неправомерное действие, что приравнивали к сокрытию информации. В то же время, в требования «знай своего клиента» (KYC rules) были внесены изменения, что заставило учреждения внедрить политику, для соблюдения требований по предъявлению информации о реальных владельцах компаний.

Результатом такого прогресса стал тот факт, что, например, сейчас существуют банки, которые не открывают счета для любой компании, в которой осуществлялся выпуск акции на предъявителя. Другие банки по-прежнему могут открыть счета для компаний, выпустивших акции на предъявителя, но они требуют, чтобы акций находились на “ответственном хранении”, в соответствии с требованиями «знай своего клиента» (KYC rules).

Чтобы сдержать или успокоить давление со стороны международных организаций, таких как ОЭСР (Организация экономического сотрудничества и развития) начавшееся с 2013 года, в Панаме был принят Закон 47 от 6 августа, в соответствии с которым утвердили принятие системы  хранения и администрирования ценных бумаг и финансовых инструментов от имени других лиц, применимую к акциям на предъявителя.

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